199. Case Report: The Perfect Storm of Complications Post-Partum – Summa Health

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Manage episode 327450144 series 2585945
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CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) join Dr. Phoo Pwint Nandar (former FIT Ambassador), Dr. Deep Shah (current FIT Ambassador), and Dr. Sugat Wagle from the Summa Health Cardiology Department for an afternoon at Cuyahoga National Valley Park. We discuss a case of a post-partum woman who presented with ventricular fibrillation arrest due to SCAD. She had ongoing advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) for nearly 60 minutes before obtaining return of spontaneous circulation. We discuss the broad differential of VF arrest, including acute coronary syndrome and spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) – among many others. We also go over the etiology and management of SCAD as well the complications. Pregnancy is a crucial stressor to the cardiovascular system and understanding its hemodynamic changes is crucial to all physicians. The E-CPR segment is provided by Dr. Grace Ayafor, Interventional cardiology faculty, Summa Health. Jump to: Case media - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Episode Schematics & Teaching - SCAD Pearls - SCAD SCAD remains underdiagnosed. It has a wide range of clinical presentations, including chest pain, ACS, VT/VF arrest, and cardiogenic shock.Underlying etiologies of SCAD include autoimmune diseases, connective tissue disorders, fibromuscular dysplasia, external stressors, and pregnancy.There are 3 types of SCAD, and coronary angiogram is the gold standard for diagnosis.Common areas of involvement of SCAD include left anterior descending and left circumflex arteries; however, SCAD can manifest in any coronary artery as well as simultaneously in multiple coronary arteries. Left main trunk involvement is rare, more likely to be associated with the peri-partum state, and requires complex management decisions guided by a heart team approach.Most SCAD cases are benign and treated conservatively, however, some require intervention (PCI or CABG) depending on clinical severity and course.Recurrent SCAD has been reported in 10-30% of the patients and aggressive management of hypertension is recommended.Guidelines regarding SCAD management are largely based on expert consensus due to a dearth of high-quality data. Efforts to raise awareness and study this syndrome are of paramount importance. Notes - SCAD 1. What is SCAD and how does it present? Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is defined as an epicardial coronary dissection that is not associated with atherosclerosis or instrumentation.This occurs with hematoma formation within the tunica media, thereby potentially compressing the arterial true lumen leading to ischemia.There are two proposed mechanisms of hematoma formation: “inside-out” and “outside-in”. The inside-out hypothesis posits that the hematoma arises from the true lumen via a dissection flap – an endothelial-intimal disruption. Conversely the outside-in hypothesis posits that the hematoma arises de novo within the media through disruption of traversing microvessels.There is a wide range of clinical presentation for SCAD varying in severity including asymptomatic / benign presentation, anginal syndromes, acute myocardial infarction, VT/VF arrest, and cardiogenic shock. Our patient presented with VF arrest and ACS.SCAD epidemiology is confounded by a lack of awareness. A high index of suspicion is warranted. Diagnosis can be missed in young or mid-life without CV risk factors who would present with atypical/mild chest pain. 2. What are the etiologies of SCAD? SCAD is associated with the peripartum state (presumed due to combination of hormonal mediated vessel wall integrity changes and hemodynamic stressors), illicit substance use, autoimmune disorders,

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